Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra
On 28 March 1842, the orchestra of the Vienna Court Opera, organised as a symphonic ensemble by composer-conductor Otto Nicolai, presented a concert that would develop into the Philharmonic Concerts and the Vienna Philharmonic. The principles on which the orchestra operates today were established then: artistic, organizational, and financial self-responsibility, with decisions made by the main body of active members, administrative work carried out by an elected committee, and membership made up only of musicians engaged by the Vienna State Opera.
The list of Vienna Philharmonic music directors includes Hans Richter, Gustav Mahler, Felix Weingartner, Wilhelm Furtwängler, and Clemens Krauss. Wagner, Verdi, Bruckner, Brahms and Richard Strauss all conducted the orchestra.
In 1933 the orchestra abandoned the idea of a permanent music director but continued to maintain long-term relationships with conductors, including, for example, Arturo Toscanini, Erich Kleiber, Hans Knappertsbusch, George Szell, Bruno Walter and, again, Furtwängler. The Vienna Philharmonic has participated in the Salzburg Festival since 1922.